The ORCID (// (listen); Open Researcher and Contributor ID) denotes both an alphanumeric code (ORCID iD) to uniquely identify authors and contributors of scholarly communication, as well as ORCID's web site and services to look up authors and their bibliographic output (and other user-supplied pieces of information).
ORCID iD aims to provide a persistent code for humans, similar to tax ID numbers, to address the problem that a particular author's contributions to scholarly communication can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique and thus multiple persons of the same name could contribute to the same scholarly field, even from the same institutional department. Further, names can change (such as with marriage); there are cultural differences in name ordering conventions; journals make inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations, name suffixes, and middle initials; and employ different writing systems.
ORCID offers registered users to maintain "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list," hosted by ORCID, edited by the user.
Development and launch
- On November 9, 2009, during the first Name Identifier Summit, "members from the research community [...] announced their intent to collaborate to resolve the author name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication."
- On February 3, 2010, a public discussion board, titled Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative, was created.
- On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers, initially based on Thomson Reuter's ResearcherID software, another identifying system for scientific authors.
- As of 16 January 2021, the number of live accounts reported by ORCID was 10,510,158.
- On 20 November 2020 the ten-millionth registration.
- On 15 November 2014, ORCID announced the one-millionth registration,
To encourage others to join them in supporting the adoption of ORCID, an open letter dated 1 January 2016 was crafted with "publishers that signed this open letter committed to requiring ORCID iDs following specific implementation standards."
In a 2021 update to the Springer Nature website, they noted that they would thenceforth "support verifying and crediting your [peer] review activity directly from our manuscript submission systems to ORCID."
Formally, ORCID iDs are specified as https URIs with a 16-digit number that is compatible with the ISO Standard (ISO 27729), also known as the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI), for example https://orcid.org/0000-0001-2345-6789. The ORCID Registry randomly assigns ORCID iDs from a block of numbers set aside for them by the ISNI International Agency which avoids having the same number assigned to different people.
Members and sponsors
By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations. Organizational members include research institutions such as Caltech and Cornell University, and publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. There are also commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and funding bodies. Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust (a charitable foundation) have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding provide an ORCID identifier.
In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience, Springer Publishing, the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Europe PMC, the Japanese National Institute of Informatics's Researcher Name Resolver, Wikipedia, and Wikidata.
Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus, Figshare, Thomson Reuters' ResearcherID system, , the British Library (for their EThOS thesis catalogue), ProQuest (for their ProQuest Dissertations and Theses service), and Frontiers Loop.
Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services into ORCID, for example, Mendeley2ORCID, for Mendeley.
- Authority control
- Digital Author Identifier (DAI)
- List of academic databases and search engines
- Ringgold identifier (RIN)
- Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)
- Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due". Nature. 462: 825. doi:10.1038/462825a.
- ORCID website.
- News (30 May 2012) "Scientists: your number is up: ORCID scheme will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of publications", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi:10.1038/485564a.
- "Ten things you need to know about ORCID right now". ImpactStory. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Interview with Alice Meadows, Director of Communications for ORCID (2015). "ORCID – Unique Author Identifier". ChemViews magazine. doi:10.1002/chemv.201500088.
- Crossref & ORCID.
- "RESEARCH STAKEHOLDERS ANNOUNCE COLLABORATION AMONG BROAD CROSS-SECTION OF COMMUNITY TO RESOLVE NAME AMBIGUITY IN SCHOLARLY RESEARCH" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2018 – via internet archive.
Collectively, these organizations agreed on the importance of working together to overcome the contributor identification issue facing the global research community: American Institute of Physics, American Psychological Association, Association for Computing Machinery, British Library, CrossRef, Elsevier, European Molecular Biology Organization, Hindawi, INSPIRE (project of CERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries, Nature Publishing Group, Public Library of Science, ProQuest, SAGE Publications Inc.,Springer,Thomson Reuters, University College London, University of Manchester (JISC Names Project), University of Vienna, Wellcome Trust, and Wiley-Blackwell.
- "Welcome to the Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative (or ORCID) group on Nature Network". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2017 – via internet archive.
- "What is the relationship between the ORCID Initiative and ORCID, Inc.? – Feedback & support for ORCID". support.orcid.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "ORCID Launches Registry". 16 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "ORCID vs ISNI; ORCID lanceert vandaag hun Author Register - Artikel - SURFspace". Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Register for an ORCID iD". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- ORCID. "ORCID Statistics". orcid.org. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "10M ORCID iDs!". ORCID. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "Tweet". ORCID. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
It’s official! 1M of you have an ORCID iD! We thank the community, and look forward to continued collaboration.
- various (1 January 2016). "Requiring ORCID in Publication Workflows: Open Letter". Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Why Some Publishers are Requiring ORCID iDs for Authors: An Interview with Stuart Taylor, The Royal Society". The Scholarly Kitchen. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "ORCID iDs at Springer Nature". Springer Nature. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- "Trademark and iD Display Guidelines". ORCID. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Structure of the ORCID Identifier". ORCID.
- "ORCID and ISNI Issue Joint Statement on Interoperation, April 2013". Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- "2013 Year in review". ORCID, Inc. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Members". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- O'Beirne, Richard. "OUP and ORCID". Oxford Journals. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- ORCID Sponsors
- Wilsdon; et al. (July 2015). "The Metric Tide" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Announcements". Journal of Neuroscience. April 2014. Archived from the original on 22 June 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "The Journal of Neuroscience Rolls Out ORCID Integration". Society for Neuroscience. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "Author Zone 16 - ORCID". Springer Publishing. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- "Hiroshi Asakura". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "ORCID Article Claiming". Europe PubMed Central. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "ORCID integration". Researcher Name Resolver. National Institute of Informatics. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Wikipedia authors. "Category:Wikipedia articles with ORCID identifiers". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Wikidata contributors. "Pages that link to "Property:P496"". Wikidata. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "Scopus2Orcid - Use the Scopus to Orcid Author details and documents wizard to collect all your Scopus records in one unique author profile". Scopus. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "RID - ORCID Integration - IP & Science". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- "Researchfish now integrating with the ORCID registry". Researchfish. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "British Library EThOS - about searching and ordering theses online". British Library. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Connected from the Beginning: Adding ORCID to ETDs". 12 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015 – via ProQuest.
- Ponto, Michelle (7 October 2015). "ORCID and Loop: A New Researcher Profile System Integration". ORCID. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- "Explaining the DataCite/ORCID Auto-update". DataCite. 29 October 2015.
- "Auto-Update Has Arrived! ORCID Records Move to the Next Level". Crossref. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Q&D RDF Browser". Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- Archer, Phil. "Proposal for the Improvement of the Semantics of ORCIDs". W3C. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "ORCID, Inc". Retrieved 19 April 2015.